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"The great Russian physiologist Ivan Pavllov trained dogs by always ringing a bell before he presented them with food. Eventually he found the dogs would slobber uncontrollably as soon as he rang the bell, even before he had presented the food: their bodies had become "conditioned" to prepare for food when the bell was rung. Similarly, attention-interrupting "tools" like email alerts and instant messaging have conditioned our minds to expect a tiny burst of informational pleasure."


HARGRAVE, Sir John, 2016. Mind Hacking: How to Change Your Mind for Good in 21 Days. 1. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-50111-0565-4